You can find the illustrated alphabet on the wikipedia page. Note that there are only 24 letters (I/J and U/V are combined). You may recognize some of the couplets:
In Adam's fall,
We sinned all.
Thy life to mend,
This Book attend.
The idle Fool
Is whipt at school.
In one section, pupils are given lists of words with the same syllable count. The monosyllablic words are fairly tame (God, child, grace, knit), as are the disyllabic words(boldly, father, husband), but things get a little strange in the 3+ categories. Here are the first four trisyllabic words from the 1727 version:
Cheery, no? The polysyllabic lists aren't quite as dreary, though you will find "Discontented" in the four-syllable list and "Fornication" on the five-syllable list.
The primer also includes some short prayers, such as the well-known "Now I lay me down to sleep. . ." For obvious reasons, I found this one more interesting:
I In the Burying place may seeGraves shorter there than I;From Death's arrest no age is free,Young children too may die.My God, may such an awful sightAwakening be to me!Oh! that by early Grace I mightFor Death prepared be.